Time line of ireland

30,000 BC
Evidence found of bears, reindeer, hyena and woolly mammoths during this period.

8,000 BC
Final spell of severe cold weather ends and post-glacial period begins.

6,500 BC
Ireland cut off from Britain by rising sea level. Earliest presence of man in Ireland.

3,000 BC
Building of megalithic tombs starts.

2,550 BC
Wheat cultivated at Newgrange, Co. Meath.

1,500 BC
Copper mining at Mount Gabriel Co. Cork.

753 BC
Rome founded.

500 BC
Start of Iron Age in Ireland.

300 BC
Evidence of La Tene influences in Ireland through trade and possible migration from the continent. Building of ring forts, hill forts and crannogs commence.

55 BC
Julius Caesar invades Britain.

297 AD
Picts, in conjunction with the Irish attack Roman Britain. Irish raids on Britain continue to
450, many slaves being brought back including one who went on to become St. Patrick.

Assault on Britain by Picts, Irish (Scotti), and Saxons.

Traditional date for the commencement of St. Patrick's mission.

Saxons invade Britain.

493 March 17th.
Traditional date for death of St. Patrick.

Bubonic plague reaches Ireland.

Recurrence of the plague.

Outbreak of Small Pox.

Great wind.

Great snow

Hot summer.

Eclipse of the sun, causing wide spread panic.

Battle of Chester in England, and Northumbrian power reaches the Irish sea.

Another outbreak of Bubonic plague, continues for four years.

Great snow, famine.

Start of three years of famine and pestilence, cannibalism rumoured.

Cattle plague in Ireland.
Around this time there was a gradual transition from tribalism to dynastic politics, resulting in 5 hundred years of inter Kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, there were also inter monastery battles.

Plague, believed to have been polio, also dysentery.

Outbreak of small pox.

Great snow for 3 months.

Twelve years of famine and plague, Bloody flux, small pox, rabies and cattle murrain.

Drought and famine.

Bad summer - wind and rain.

First Viking raids on Ireland.

Inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, took place during this century.

Large Viking raid on western coast.

Vikings carry out intensive raids on Ireland, and set up bases.

Norse occupy Cork.

Relative respite from Viking raids for next forty years.

892 Great wind, forests destroyed and wooden churches and houses blown away.

899 More inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, took place during this century.

900 English coins begin to circulate in Ireland.

902 Dublin evacuated by the Norse.

914 Large Viking fleet arrives in Waterford.

920 to 950 Dublin Kings strike coins at York in England.

922 Foundation of the Norse town of Limerick.

951 Outbreak of Small pox and bloody flux among the Norse in Dublin.

965 Famine.

978 Battle of Belach Lechta - in Ballyhoura mountains in north Cork. Brian Boruma mac Cennetig (Brian Boru) defeats and kills Mael Muad mac Brain and becomes king of Munster.

999 Battle of Glenn Mama near Dublin, Mael Morda, king of Leinster, and Sitric Silkbeard king of Dublin defeated by Brian Boru. Other inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, took place during this century.

1000 Brian Boru captures Dublin.

1002 Reign of Brian Boru as High King commences twelve years of reasonable peace apart from odd out breaks of inter dynasty fights in Ulster.

1014 Mael Morda, king of Leinster invites Jarl Sigurd of Orkney to help him fight Brian Boru. In the battle of Clontarf on Good Friday Apr. 23. They are defeated and both killed. Brian Boru is killed after the battle. Inter kingdom feuds and battles recommence.

1047 Famine in Ulster causing a lot of people to settle in Leinster.

1061 Small Pox and Collic reach epidemic proportions in Leinster.

1062 Colic in Leinster, spreads to rest of country.

1066 Battle of Hastings, Norman's conquer England.

1086 Doomesday survey in England.

1094 Severe weather throughout the country causing dearth.

1095 Pope Urban II proclaims first crusade at council of Clermont; "Scotti come in crowds from the land of mist" to join.

1095 Another great plague.

1096 Foundation of the See of Waterford.

1096 Great plague continues, laws of abstinence and almsgiving promulgated by clergy and princes.

1097 Round tower of Monasterboice burned and library destroyed

1098 Great famine.

1099 Other inter kingdom battles, too numerous to mention, again took place during this century.

1106 See of Limerick founded

1107 March; many cattle died in severe snow.

1108 Flemish colonisation of Pembroke in Wales.

1116 Great famine in spring; affecting Leinster and Munster.

1122 Toirrdelbach Ua Conchobair of Meath campaigns with fleet and land forces throughout Munster.

1145 "Great war this year, so that Ireland was a trembling sod" - From the Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters.

1151 Battle of Moin Mor in north Cork. Toirrdelbach Ua Briain , king of Munster defeated by Toirrdelbach Ua Conchobair, 7,000 Munstermen killed.

1155 Cattle plague.

1155 Proposal for invasion of Ireland by Henry II discussed at Council of Winchester, but rejected.

1156/57 Great frost, lakes frozen.

1164 Malcolm IV of Scotland, defeats and kills Somarlaide, helped by Dublin fleet near Renfrew Scotland.

Henry II of England campaigns unsuccessfully in Wales having hired the Dublin fleet for six months.

1169 Robert fitz Stephen, Hervey de Montmorency , and Maurice de Prendergast land at Bannow Bay in Wexford. Wexford captured by Diarmait Mac Murchada, assisted by the Normans and the custody is given to Robert fitz Stephen. Mac Murchada invades Ossory, Maurice fitz Gerald arrives in Wexford.

1170 May, Raymond (le Gros) Fitz William land in Co. Wexford Aug. 23 Richard de Clare (Strongbow) Earl of Pembroke, lands near Waterford. Aug. 25 Strongbow and Raymond le Gros capture Waterford. Strongbow marries Mac Murchada's daughter, Aoife. Sept 21. MacMurchada and Norman allies capture Dublin.

1169 May. Diarmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster dies and is succeeded by his son in law, Strongbow.
Nov. Kings of North Leinster and Breifne submit to Henry II in Dublin. Henry II grants charter to city of Dublin.

1170 Sept. 20 Pope Alexander III writes to the Irish Kings advocating fealty to Henry II

1171 Merchants of Lucca and Flanders trade with Cork city.

1175 Ruaidri Ua Conchobair and Normans campaign together in Ormond and Thomond, Limerick city captured.

1185 Prince John lands at Waterford

1189 Prince John grants charter to Cork city.

1197 Prince John grants charter to city of Limerick.

1199 Numerous battles during this century; Irish versus Irish, Norman versus Irish, Norman and Irish versus Irish and other combinations.

1209 King John campaigns in Ireland.

1213 May 15. King John reconciled with the pope.
June 6. Papal confirmation of annual tax of 300 marks for Ireland.
Oct 3. King John surrenders kingship of England to Holy See.

1214 June 24. Magna Carta signed in England.

1215 Nov. 12 Magna Carta issued for Ireland.

1217 Jan. 14. Royal Mandate against promotion of Irishmen to cathedral benefices.
Feb. 28. Papal tax levied for Fifth Crusade.
Nov. 10. Feudal aid levied.

1218 Apr. Papal recognition of rights of crown in Irish Episcopal elections.

1222 Dublin imposes tax on wines.

1232 Kerry shirred as separate county.

1237 Revolt of the O'Briens

1242 Jan. 2. Henry III grants Cork City right to hold in fee farm, and recognises guilds.

1245 Light house built at Hook Head, Co. Wexford.

1246 Connacht shired.

1251 Mint for the minting of coins, opened in Dublin.

1252 Mar. 13. Clerical tenth levied.

1253 Limerick and Tipperary shired as separate counties.

1256 Jan. 26. Pope condemns English attitudes to Irish laws of inheritance.

1260 Apr. 29. Royal order against Scots migration into Ireland.

1261 Irish Kings offer high-kingship to Haakon IV of Norway, for support in expelling English from Ireland.

1271 Bad weather, famine and disease.

1272 Irish wool taxed at Bruges.

1293 Edward I gives safe conduct to Flanders merchants in Ireland.

1296 Edward I invades Scotland.

1306 Toirrdelbach  Brian, King of Thomond, dies; succeeded by his son Donnchad; civil dissension among O'Briens.

1311 Warfare between O'Brien factions; battle near Bunratty.

1311-1312 Letter from EdwardII to sheriffs and seneschals in Ireland, commanding that Irish revenues be spent in Ireland.

1313 May 31Scots land in Ulster.

1314 Edward II requests support of Irish kings against the Scots.

1315-1317 Famine in Western Europe, including Ireland.

1316 Summer. Wide spread famine and plague

1320-1330 Outbreak of smallpox and other epidemics.

1321 Crop failure and cattle plague.

1326 Traitorous assembly of lords convened by Maurice fitz Thomas FitzGerald in Tipperary.

1348 Black Death appears on East Coast.

1353 Two burned at Waterford for heresy.

1363 Dioceses of Lismore and Waterford united.

1382 Oct 4. Feudal service convened at Cashel for expedition against O'Briain

1434 Nov 29 Great frost; lakes frozen, lasts until 15 Feb 1435

1439 Plague in Dublin.

1478 Recurrence of the Plague.

1487 First recorded use of firearms in Ireland by troops of Aodh Ruadh O'Domhanill; Brian, son of Cathal O'Ruairc, killed by shot from Gofraidh O'Domhnaill at taking of Castlecar Co. Leitrim.

1491 Jan. Sweating sickness reaches Ireland from England.

1492 Recurrence of the Plague.

1497 Famine general in Ireland.

1504-1505 Plague ravages Ireland, especially Ulster.

1528 Migrations of Munster Irish into Pembrokeshire (Wales)

1531 Feb 11 Henry VIII recognised as supreme head of the Church of England by convocation of Canterbury.

1534 Nov. 18 English Act of Supremacy.

1535 May First session of 'reformation parliament' held in Dublin.

1542 First mission of Jesuits to Ireland.

1555 June 7 Bull of Pope Paul IV making Ireland a kingdom.

1582 Feb 24 Bull of Pope Gregory XIII for reformation of calendar; 4 Oct. 1582 to be immediately followed by 15 Oct. Year to begin January 1. (This news did not reach Ireland until 1751).

1588 Sept. About 25 ships of the Spanish Armada wrecked off Irish coast. Castaways helped in Ulster and north Connacht, but elsewhere put to death.

1605 Mar. 11 Proclamation declaring all persons in realm to be free, natural, and immediate subjects of the King and not subjects of any lords or chiefs.

1607 May 14 First settlers reach mainland of Virginia.

1641 Oct 22 Outbreak of rebellion in Ulster

1642 Aug 22 -Beginning of civil war in England.

1647 June 7 Parliamentary force of 2,000 under Col. Michael Jones lands near Dublin.
June 19 Ormond agrees to surrender Dublin to parliamentary commissioners.
Sept 14 Inchiquin sacks Cashel

1648 Outbreaks of smallpox and dysentery over following two years.

1649 Jan 30 Charles I executed.
Mar 30 English parliament approves appointment of Cromwell as commander-in-chief in Ireland.
Aug 15 Cromwell lands at Dublin.
Nov 20 Carrick-on-Suir taken by Cromwellian forces.

1650 Feb 3 Surrender of Fethard to Cromwell, on specially favourable terms
Feb. 24 Cahir surrenders.
May 10 Clonmel surrenders to Cromwell, after tenacious defence by Hugh Duff O'Neill.
May 26 Cromwell leaves Ireland.

1651 May 1 - Proclamation warning officers and soldiers not to marry Catholics.

1652 Aug 12 - Act for the settling of Ireland, classifying opponents of parliament according to degree of guilt imputed to them and setting out qualifications for treatment of those not excepted from pardon of life and estate.

1653 May 23 - Order for transplantation of Ulster Presbyterians to Kilkenny, Tipperary and Waterford.
July 2 - Council of state in England sends instructions to parliamentary commissioners regarding transplantation of Irish (see Nov. 30 1654). All those entitled to qualifications specified in act of settling of Ireland to remove to Connacht or Clare by 1 May 1654; commissioners to be appointed to allot land to transplanted persons.

1654 Nov. 30 - All 'transplantable persons' (those in categories set out in act for settling of Ireland) ordered to move by 1 Mar. 1655 (see 14 July 1655).

1655 Apr. 13 - Proclamation prohibiting keeping of Easter.
July 14 -Orders defining 'transplantable persons' as proprietors and soldiers.

1656 Feb. 12 - Obviously still no transplanting had taken place (if it ever did) because they were still discussing the allotment of specific baronies in Connacht and Clare.

1660 May 14 - Charles II proclaimed king in Dublin.
May 29 - Charles II makes formal entry into London.
Nov. 30 - Charles II makes declaration confirming Cromwellian soldiers and adventurers in ownership of lands in their possession and also providing for 'innocent papists' and those who have supported monarchy.

1661 Dec. - Group of catholics draw up 'remonstrance', declaring unqualified allegiance to the king and disclaiming pope's authority to absolve them from such allegiance.

1662 July 31 - Act of settlement designed to give effect to Charles II's declaration of Nov 30 1660 and to resolve conflicting claims of Cromwellians and former proprietors.
Dec 20 - Hearth Money Tax.

1663 Aug. 21 - Closure of first court of claims, after issuing 566 decrees of innocence to catholics, but leaving many claims unheard.

1665 May to Sept. - Plague in London.

1666 Sept 3 - Start of Great Fire of London.

1669 Jan. 2 - Last sitting of second court of claims.
Nov 1 - Oliver Plunkett consecrated catholic archbishop of Armagh.
1670 May 22 - Secret treaty of Dover, in which Charles II undertakes to declare himself a catholic in return for French subsidy.

1671 Aug. 1 - Commission to examine land settlement, headed by Prince Rupert.

1683 Nov. - Beginning of severe frost throughout Ireland lasting until following March.

1685 Aug. - First copy of 'Dublin News-letter' published.

1690 July 1 - Battle of the Boyne.

1695 - Scotland experiences first of series of cold and wet summers followed by early frosts resulting in ruined crops and stunted animals resulting in a massive emigration to Ulster.

1708 Sept. 4-8 - Nearly 800 Palatine families arrive in Dublin to settle in Ireland.

1718 Beginning of extensive emigration from Ulster to American colonies.

1723 - Spring unusually hot and dry; summer excessively so; autumn also unusually so.

1725 Mar. 27 - First edition of Faulkner's Dublin Journal.

1726 Aug - Succession of harvest failures begins and continues to 1728.

1729 - Fresh wave of emigration of Ulster Scots to America.

1733 Jan. - Outbreak of influenza epidemic.

1739 Summer - Excessively wet summer; grain harvest reduced, cut turf did not dry.
Dec 27 - Severe frost sets in continuing until February. Idleness, distress, famine, and mortality ensue.

1740 Summer - cold and excessively dry, grain and potato crops small.
Dec - Severe frost, famine returns, accompanied by fever and dysentery.

1741 June - August. - Unusually dry and hot, grain crop much improved but fever and dysentery aggravated.

1742 Apr. 13 - Handel's 'Messiah' performed for first time, in Dublin.

1750 Nov. - First copy of Dublin Directory published.

1752 Sept.2 - Julian calendar abolished and replaced by Gregorian calendar the following day became 14 Sept.

1755 Nov. 1 - Earthquake at Lisbon, felt in Munster.

1756 April - Dearth of corn and potatoes continues to 1757.

1761 Oct. - Start of Whiteboyism in Munster.

1763 Sept 10 - First number of Freeman's Journal.

1765 April - Start of severe drought resulting in poor harvest and stunted livestock.

1766 Summer - Wide spread rioting owing to scarcity and high price of food.

1773 Nov 8 - Opening in Dublin of first house of industry. (Work House).

1775 June - Reconstitution of Irish regiments in French service: regiment of Clare amalgamated with Berwick, Bulkeley amalgamated with Dillon.

1776 July 4 - Declaration of American independence.

1778 - Series of bank and merchant failures.

1782 May 4 - Catholic relief act, allows Catholics to acquire land.

1784 May - Irish Post Office established by statue.

1785 Sept - Whiteboys, now known as Rightboys, renew disturbances in Munster.

1790 July 5 - First mail coach.
July 10 - Based on hearth-money returns made in 1788, population estimated at 4,040,000

1791 July 21 - Irish brigade disbanded by French national assembly.
Oct 14 - Society of United Irish Irishmen founded in Belfast. Secretary Robert Simms (The wife's ancestor)

1794 Mar 1 - Statutes of Dublin University amended to allow Catholics to take degrees.

1795 Sept 21 - Battle of the diamond near Loughall Co. Armagh between Peep o' Day Boys and Defenders, leading to the foundation of the Orange Order.

1796 July 12 - First Orange Parade at Portadown.

1798 May 23 - United Irish rebellion begins in Leinster.

1799 Aug 1 - Irish act of union
Aug 2 - Last meeting of Irish parliament.

July 2.
Copyright act .. Requiring one copy of every book published in UK to be deposited in library of Trinity College, Dublin and makes illegal the pirating in Ireland of British-published books.

1803 Jan. Influenza epidemic, which continued until June.
July 23. Robert Emmet's rising in Dublin.
Sept 19. Robert Emmet convicted of high treason (executed next day).
Dec. 7. Commissioning of officers in new Irish legion established by Baonaparte

Jan 14. Opening in Dublin of Institution for vaccinating against small pox.
Mar 4 - 5 Insurrection at Castle Hill near Parramatta, New South Wales many Irish involved.

Mar 25. Presentation to parliament of Irish catholic petition
April 9. Pius VII grants final approval to Presentation order founded at Cork by Nano Nagle.
May 13 House of Commons debates Irish catholic petition; Grattan makes his maiden speech in its support.

Jan 19 First meeting of Gaelic Society of Dublin.
Mar 20. Charter incorporating Cork Institution for promoting science and agriculture.

1808 August.
Christian Brothers, lay teaching order, founded by Edmund Rice.

1809 June 15.
Drainage of bogs act.

1810 September.
Commission to inquire into state of Irish records (Reports 1-15 in 3 vols.)

1813 July 12.
First recorded disturbances in Belfast as a result of tension between Protestants and Catholics.

August. Potato crop fails owing to late seasons and excessive rain; beginning of first major famine since 1742.
Oct - Nov. Typhus epidemic begins. (Continues until December 1819 causing some 50,000 deaths).

June 16.
Poor employment act, empowers appointment of commissioners to direct public works financed by mortgages of rates.
July 11.
Act to provide for the establishment of asylums for the lunatic poor in Ireland.
July .
Jeffery Sedwards forms total abstinence society in Skibbereen,
Sept 30.
National fever committee appointed to disburse government aid for victims of epidemic (18,629 spent in 2 years)

1818 May.
Fever hospitals act provides for the establishment of fever hospitals and extension of dispensary system.

1820 May 25.
Failure of Roche's Bank and stoppage of Leslie's Bank at Cork causes banking crisis which spreads throughout Munster and then to Dublin.

Census - population 6,801,827 Sept. Potato crop fails again.

May 24.
Poor employment act, provided £50,000 for building of roads in response to widespread failure of potato crop.
Fever follows famine in west of Ireland.

1823 July.
Irish tithe composition act. Enables incumbents and their parishioners to substitute fixed money payment, settled by arbitrators, in lieu of tithes.

1825 Dec.
Over 60 English banks suspend payments, causing severe recession in English and Irish manufacturing industry.

June-August. Fever epidemic follows collapse of textile industry in Dublin, Belfast and Cork.

1835 June 2.
William Sharman Crawford opens tenant-right campaign in Commons by bringing in a bill to compensate evicted tenants for improvements.

1838 July 31.
Poor Relief Act extends English poor law to Ireland. Commission set up to administer a workhouse system.

1839 Jan. 6.
The night of "The big wind".

1840 Apr. 24.
First union workhouse (South Dublin) opened.

1841 June 6.
Census taken throughout Ireland: Population 8,175,124 (5.25% increase since 1831).

1841 Aug. 30.
First edition of Cork Examiner.

June 18. Capital Punishment (Ireland) Act abolishes death penalty for numerous offences.
Aug. 12. Act confirms validity of marriages celebrated by dissenting ministers.

1844 Aug.
Act authorising construction of railway from Dublin to Cashel. Extension to Cork authorised July 1845.

Sept 9.
Dublin Evening Post reports the arrival of potato blight in Ireland.
Oct 31.
Committee formed in Dublin to examine extent of potato loss and to suggest remedies.
Nov. 10.
Peel,(English Prime Minister) on his own responsibility, orders purchase in USA of £100,000 of Indian corn for shipment to Ireland.
Nov 18.
Appointment of Peel's relief commission to administer scheme of relief.

Jan. 23
Public Works Bill, the first in a series of measures intended to relieve distress.
Mar 13
Eviction of 300 tenants on Gerrard estate in Co. Galway.
Mar 28.
Sales begin at Cork and other places of food being distributed by relief commission
June 26.
Peel repeals the corn laws, abolishing all duties on imported corn.
June 14.
Reappearance of potato blight.
Sept 25.
Disturbance at Youghal arising out of attempt by crowd to hold up ship laden with oats for export.
Start of unusually severe winter, snow, frost, north easterly gales.

Jan 1.
First operation performed in Richmond Hospital, Dublin under general anaesthesia.
Jan 2.
Formation of British Association for the relief of the extreme Distress in the Remote Parishes of Ireland and Scotland.
Jan 26.
Duties on importation of corn suspended until Sept 1.
Feb. 26
Destitute Poor Act - permits appointment of relief commission to administer outdoor relief.
Apr. 5
First soup kitchen opened in Dublin.
June 8.
Poor Relief Act, empowers boards of guardians to grant outdoor relief to aged, infirm, and to sick poor and to poor widows with 2 or more dependent children. It also empowered poor law commissioners to permit boards to give food to able-bodied poor for limited periods; but persons holding more than quarter acre of land were excluded. July.
Potato harvest small but sound.
Sept 19
Meeting of tenant farmers at Holycross, Co. Tipperary, convened by Lalor to form a tenant league.
Oct 1.
Distribution from government soup-kitchens ceased.
1848 Summer.
Failure of potato crop due to blight.
Aug. 1
Inauguration of regular mail service by rail between Ireland and London.
Cholera returns to Ireland.
1849 June.
Reappearance of potato blight.