EXPLANATION OF SOME OF THOSE IRISH WORDS WHICH MOST FREQUENTLY OCCUR, IN COMPOSITION WITH THE NAMES OF PLACES.
From a Topographical Dictionary of Ireland by by Nicholas Carlisle
AB, ABB, a Lord, an Abbot.
ABHAN, ABHUN, a River. Pronounced Oh-unh, but the correct pronunciation is O-vunh, or Áunh, hence the A'von.
ABUIDH, ready, expert, ripe.
ACHADH, a Field, i.e., a Field of Contention or Battle. To designate the substantive, "Field," the Irish write "Machaire" ; and a green Cornfield, "Gort."
ACHAR, AICHEAR, revengeful, cruel, ireful, morose. This word is used by Mr. Edward Lhuyd to express the adjective "sharp." But "Geár," is sharp: and when applied to the taste, the Irish write "Geár," of any thing naturally acid; and "Searbh," to express anything sour: thus, Lemon Juice is "Geár." -Vinegar "Searbh."
ACHILL, "Fiolar," an Eagle. A'chill, Ascending, or an Ascent to the Wood of Forest.
ACRADH, an Acre.
AGH, a Field, spreading from the Base of a Hill.
AILL, probably a Corruption of "Gall," as applied to Englishmen, or any Foreigner; for example "Sean-Ghall, or, Ghaill," the old English; correctly, it would be "Senbhriotaiúioch."
AILL, a Rock, a steep Summit, the Precipice beneath.
ÁIRSE, a Vault.
AIRSIDH, an Arch.
ANUNN, ANONN, over. -"Anon."
AOSDA, ancient, old.
ARD, Altitude, an high Place, or rising Ground.
ARM, AIRM, a Weapon, Arms.
ARMHACH, Slaughter, in Battle.
ART, a Tent, a Tabernacle.
ATH, a Ford.
ATTIN, Furze, or Gorse.
AWIN, a River.
BAD, a Boat.
BAIL, BAILE, BAL, BALL, a Place of assembling a Tribe, a Home, a Town.
BALLA, BALLADH, a Wall, Bulwarks.
BALLACH, BEALACH, a High way.
BALLIN, BALLY, a Hamlet, or Inclosed place or Habitation.
BAN, desolate; because; Hors du page, interdicted.
BÁNH, a Farm-yard; vide "Bothan.
BAR, BARR, the Summit, or Uppermost Point of the Altitude of an Object.
BARN, a Judge of a Duel of Battle.
BEAG, BEG, little.
BEAL, BÉUL, a Mouth.
BEALLTUINE, May:-La Bealltuine, May-day.
BEN, a Woman
BUN, the Base of any Thing.
BÓ, a Cow.
BOCHD, BOCHT, poor.
BOG, soft, tender.
BOGHA, a Bow.
BOIDHE, BUIDHE, yellow.
BOLG, the Belly.
BOLLÓG, a Shell; also a Skull, the Tip of the head. This is according to O'Brien, and Lhuyd; but agreeable to the analogy of the language, it signifies a Swelling, or Tumour.
BOLÓG, a Heifer.
BON, BUN, a Base, Bottom, Foundation, or Root that has no visible Fibres; or where it is cut off, from them.
BORR, BURR, A Bunch, a Hump.
BORRAGHACH, strong, warlike, valiant; also swollen with Pride, or Vanity.
BOTH, BOTHOG, A Cattle Shed, A Hut, a Cottage, a Tent or Booth.
BOTHAN, a Barton, called in Ireland, "a Bawn,"
BRAN, black, a Raven, also, poor-"Bran-dubh," a Black Raven, to distinguish them from the grey-hooded Rooks.
BREAC, BREACH, as a Trout, spotted, of divers colours.
CAHIR, CAR, A City.
CALLA, A Veil, a Hood, or Covering for the Head.
CANACH, A Pond, or a Pool of stagnant Water.
CARN, A Monumental Heap of Stones, indiscriminately thrown up.
CARRACH, a stony Field.
CARRAGH, A Great Monumental Stone pitched on end.
CARRAN, a common Plant, or Weed.
CARRICK, A Rock, or Quarry.
CARRIG, an unhewn Stone, to mark a Boundary.
CAS, to twist.
CATHAOIR, a Chair.
CEANN, the Head.
CEILE, a Companion, one upon a visit.
CINE, a Head, or Chief of a Tribe:-From Cinn, The Head.
CING, strong in Power of Influence.
CIP, a File of armed Men.
CLANN, Children, i.e., Descendants in a direct Line of a Tribe of Family.
CLARA, CLARACH, plained, made smooth or even.
CLOCH, A Stone.
CLOIDHE, CLADH, an Intrenchment.
CLÚAIN, a Plain, or any beautiful Extant of Meadow.
CNOCK, a Hill, in the Centre of a Plain.
COILL, A Wood, a Grove.
COIR, a solitary, because excommunicated for Crimes.
COLL, a Hazle-tree.
COLM, a Dove or Pigeon.
CORCA, affected, proudly pre-eminent.
CRANN, a Tree.
CREACH, A Booty, a Prey.
CREAGACH, a rocky Road, also a loose stony Cliff, of slaty Crag.
CROAGH, An artificial sharp-pointed Hill, or Mound resembling a Rick.
CROIS, a Cross.
CÚIL, CÚL, a Closet a Couch, the inclosed back part; as when a Door is opened wide, the intermediate Space between the Wall and the Door, is the Cúl.
CÚINE, a corner.
CULTAR, a Plough-share.
CURRACH, CURRAGH, a Bog, a Fen, a Plain.
DAIR, an Oak tree.
DEAGH, good, fair, kind.
DEAS, DIAS, handsome, the right, southern.
DEISCEART, the due South.
DERRY, a corruption of Durtheach, a place of Pilgrimage.
DÍREME, pathless, as a Desert.
DOIRE, a Grove.
DOMHNACH, a Church, a Residence, or Castle of a Baron.
DON, DOWN, DUN, a Height or Fastness, a Fortress, a Hill.
DRISEOG, a Bramble.
DROM, DRUIM, a high narrow Ridge of Hills, the Back.
DUBLADE, a Scabbard.
DUCHAIS, local Inheritance:-See, FINEACHUS.
DUINÉ, a Man.
DUNÁDH, a House, an Habitation.
EAGLAIS, EGLISH, a Church.
EITHRE, ERR, ERRY, the Tail, and End, Conclusion.
ENNIS, INIS, an Island.
FAD, FEADH, long, extent.
FAIGIN, FAUGHAN, a Sheath.
FAL, a Fold, or Inclosure for Cattle.
FEAR, FIR, a Man, Males.
FEARN, FEARNÓG, an Alder-tree.
FEIGHE, the Top of a House of Mountain.
FEIR, FEUR, Grass, Hay.
FIACH, a Raven.
FIADH, a Deer.
FINEACHUS, national Inheritance. As for example, the Child of a British Subject, born on the sea, inherits the Privileges of an Englishman.-Duchais, is local Inheritance.
FION, few, little, less.
FIONN, pellucid, pale.
FUN, Land, or Ground.
GAD, a twisted Withe.
GALL, a Native of France.
GARA, GARACH, near, useful.
GARBH, rugged, coarse.
GARTHA, GÁRRTHA, a Shout or great Cry, a Bawling, to scare, or affright.
GEALL, a Pledge.
GEÁR, v. Achar.
GÉAR, GÉUR, GÚR, sharp, eager, acid.
GEIN, an Offspring, Kindred.
GILLA, GIOLLA, a Servant, dexterously obedient.
GIOLCACH, a Reed.
GLAN, clear, clean.
GLEANN, a Valley.
GORT, a Green Cornfield.
GÚAL, a Coal.
GUIDHAIN, GUIDBHÁIN, an Englishman.
GURNA, a Cave, or Den.
INIS, an Island.
IOGHA, the Yew-Tree.
KELL, a Story, a Prophecy.
KEN, CEANN, the Head.
KILL, CILLE, a Church, or Cemetery.
KIN, CINE, a Family.
KIP, CIP, a File of armed Men.
KNOCK, CNOCK, a Hill, in the Centre of a Plain.
LÁ, a Day.
LACHD, a Family, reared up from the Milk of the Parent.
LACHNA, a yellow, Die made with an Aquatic Plant.
LAG, weak, faint, feeble.
LAIGHIN, LAIGHION, the Province of Leinster; so called from the Spears used by the English.
LAMH, a Hand.
LAN, a Church.
LÁR, the middle.
LEACH, a flat Stone.
LEACH, to throw down.
LEIRG, a Plain.
LIN, LINN, a Pool, or Pond, a Lake.
LIOS, LIS, a Fortified House, a Hamlet, the Residence of a Tribe, Family, or a Detachment of Men.
LOCH, LOUGH, a Lake, a Pool.
LOINN, Joy, Gladness.
LUIBHE, an Herb.
LUS, a Leek,
MAC, a Son; in the ancient designation of Kindred, the second degree of Consanguinity; Lineal descent was described by the prefix O', for example, O'NEILl, the name of the Chief of a Tribe; Mac Neil, the name given to the collateral Branches.
MAGH, a Plain, or great Extent of even, level Country.
MAHM, a clenched Hand, or Fist.
MAIN, the Hand.
MAM, a Mother:-MO MHAM, my Mother; hence, probably, "Mamma."
MIL, Honey.-DRUS MHEALA, Honey-dew.
MODH, MOGH, A Manner, or Fashion.
MOIL, a Heap cast up.
MOINSE, a Peat-pit, a Turbary.
MÓN, MOIN, little Piles of Peat, drying in a Field.
MONAGH, a mountainous Bog.
MÓR, great huge.
MOY, a corruption of MAGH.
MUC, a Swine.
MUIR, the Sea.
MULL, a Multitude.
MÚR, a walled Defence.
NÉID, a Wound in Battle.
NOCH, NOGH, which.
NOIS, NOS, a Custom, or Manner.
ÓG, whole, entire, young.
OGH, the Segment of a Circle.
OMAGH, removed from Solitude, a Place of Mirth.
ONN, or, OIR, Furze.
PÁIL CHLOCH, a Pavement.
POC, POCAN, a He-goat.
RÁ'C, a King.
RAC, a Pouch.
RAIGH, an Arm; a corruption of "Braich." "Raighe," a Ray.
RAILGE, REILEAG, a Church-yard.
RASÁ'N, an Under-wood, a place full of Shrubs.
RATH, an Ancient Intrenchment, or Barow, the Residence of a Chief.
REIDH, ready, open.
RÉIGH, a Way.
RÚTA, a Herd, a Drove, a Rout, in full Motion.
SASAMH, Delight, Solace.
SEAN, SEANDHA, old.
SEARB, SEARR, Theft, condemned Felons.
SEARBH, v. ÁIRSE.
TAL, TALL, over, beyond, on the other Side.
TAR, beyond, over against.
TEAGH, TACH, a House.
TEAMPALL, a Temple, a Church.
TEINNE, Force, Power.
TEOLL, a Thief.
TEORA, a Limit.
TIR, TIRE, Land, Country.
TOBAR, TUBBER, a Well, formed by a Spring of Water.
TOCHAR, TOCHUR, a Cause-way; correctly, "Páil chloch." A Pavement.
TOM, TUM, a Tuft of Bushes.
TOR, a Bush,
TOR, correctly TÚR, a Tower.
TRÁIGH, a Strand, the Sea-shore.
TUIL, a Flood.
TULA, a Hillock.
TULLA, a flat Green.
TU'S, a Beginning, a Foundation, a Proceeding.
UILE, UILLE, OILLE, all, greater, Omnipotent.
UMAD, about thee, near.
URCHUR, a Throw, a Cast, a Shot from the Shoulder.
URLÁR, the Floor.